Introduction to Etiology

Neuromuscular

Cerebral Palsy (CP): A condition that impairs the control of movement and is the most common permanent, congenital disorder of childhood in the US . Difficulty with fine motor tasks, difficulty maintaining balance or walking, and involuntary movements are characteristics of CP.

Cause: Damage to motor areas in the brain that disrupts the brain’s ability to control movement and posture
Mobility: There is  range of severity
Progressive: No
Intellectual Impairment: No

Spina Bifida (SB): A congenital condition involving incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, and/or their protective coverings during pregnancy. Infants born with SB sometimes have an open lesion on their spine where significant damage to the nerves and spinal cord has occurred. The nerve damage is permanent, resulting in varying degrees of paralysis of the lower limbs

Cause: genetic, nutritional and environmental factors come into play
Mobility: There is  range of severity
Progressive: No
Intellectual Impairment: No

Muscular Dystrophy (MD): Muscular dystrophies are a group of more than 30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness, deficits in muscle proteins, and eventual death of muscle tissue. Symptoms may be mild and progress slowly or may progress rapidly and produce severe muscle weakness, functional disability, and loss of the ability to walk

Cause: Genetic mutation that is particular to that type of the disease
Mobility: There is  range of severity
Progressive: Yes
Intellectual Impairment: No

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Occurs when a traumatic event results in damage to cells within the spinal cord or severs the nerve tracts that relay signals up and down the spinal cord. SCI often, not always, causes paralysis (loss of control over voluntary movement and muscles of the body) and loss of sensation and reflex function below the point of injury

Cause: Traumatic stress to the spinal cord
Mobility: There is  range of severity
Progressive: No
Intellectual Impairment: No

 Orthopedic

Amputation: Removal of part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin. As a surgical procedure, it is typically performed to prevent the spread of gangrene as a complication of frostbite, injury, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, or any other illness that impairs blood circulation. It is also performed to prevent the spread of bone cancer and to curtail loss of blood and infection in a person who has suffered severe, irreparable damage to a limb.

  • Symes Amputation: Amputation of the forefoot or midfoot
  • Transtibial Amputation: below knee amputation
  • Transfemoral Amputation: above knee amputation
  • Hip Disarticulation: removal of leg at the femoral joint

Dwarfism: Short stature resulting from a genetic or medical condition and an adult height of 4’10” or less

Mobility: There is  range of severity
Progressive: Mild Progression
Intellectual Impairment: No

Visual Impairments: Does not necessarily mean a person cannot see. Someone may have no light perception in either eye, light perception but the inability to recognize the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction. Legal blindness is vision of 20/200 or less with the best correction. In younger populations, causes of VI include birth defects, retinopathy, tumors, injuries, and infections

*These are general definitions and guidelines. Be aware that every athlete is different and each have unique characteristics.

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